21 August 2007

How To Find Kernel Version Of LINUX

If a partition to be mounted contains files or directories which names have non-English characters, please use the '--iocharset' option: 'mount -t ufsd /dev/ /mnt/ -o --iocharset='. For example, 'mount -t ufsd /dev/hda2 /mnt/hda/02 -o --iocharset=iso-8859-2' (run in a Linux console as root or place into the /etc/fstab file).
The Logical Disk Manager (LDM) is a term for a new way of partitioning a disk. There are two types of the disk partitioning:

- Basic type -a physical disk that can be accessed by MS-DOS and all Windows-based operating systems. Basic disks can contain up to four primary partitions, or three primary partitions and an extended partition with multiple logical drives.

- Dynamic type - a physical disk that can be accessed only by Windows 2000/2003 and Windows XP. Dynamic disks provide features that basic disks do not, such as support for volumes that span multiple disks, making it possible to have an unlimited number of logical drives. Dynamic disks use a hidden database (stored on the last 1 MB of the disk) to track information about dynamic volumes on the disk and other dynamic disks in the computer.

The LDM controls Windows Dynamic Disks which support spanned, striped, mirrored and RAID5 volumes. It was introduced in Windows 2000. Before that, Windows NT used volume sets, which stored their information in the registry.

NTFS for Linux, namely Paragon LDM driver allows you to work with Microsoft dynamic disks under Linux (spanned, striped, mirrored and RAID5 volumes) as easy as in Windows.
Fragmented NTFS:
Refers to the condition of a disk in which files are divided into pieces scattered around the disk. Fragmentation occurs naturally when you use a disk frequently, creating, deleting, and modifying files. At some point, the OS needs to store parts of a file in noncontiguous cluster chains. This is entirely invisible to users, but it can slow down the speed at which data is accessed because the disk drive must search through different parts of the disk to put together a single file.
Short for Symmetric Multiprocessing, a computer architecture that provides fast performance by making multiple identical CPUs available to complete individual processes simultaneously (multiprocessing)

How to determine whether you use SMP kernel or not:

First, you should check your kernel (whether it was compiled with SMP support) using `uname -a` (run in a Linux console).

The contents of /proc/cpuinfo (run following command in a Linux console: `cat /proc/cpuinfo`) will tell you how many processors are active in the current system - if it's more than one then you're obviously on an SMP kernel, but if it equals one, then you might be using an SMP kernel on a UP machine, or a UP kernel on an SMP machine.

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